Stuart and the Commonwealth (1603 -1714)

The Stuart period opened when James I (James VI of Scotland) was crowned on 24th March 1603 following the death of Elizabeth I and closed with the death of Anne on 1st August 1714. Historically important events of the intervening years include the 'Gunpowder Plot' of 1605; the Civil War 1642-6 leading to the trial for treason and execution of Charles I in January 1648/9; the establishment of a republic for the ensuing 11 years until the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 under Charles II; the removal of the catholic James II by Parliament and his replacement by William of Orange in 1688, leading to war in Ireland between the two religious parties; and the recoinage of 1695-8 designed to replace the old hammered coins with their modern milled equivalents.